Your Journey.
Your Family.

At Sher Fertility Solutions, we understand that each patient is unique. Everything we do is customized to you and your specific needs.

Your Trusted Fertility Clinic in New York, NY

Latest videos

Sher Fertility Solutions IG Live – Staying sane during IVF – 3 expert tips

Medical Director, Dr. Drew Tortoriello, shares his top tips to help you on your IVF journey.

Whether this is your 1st round, or you’ve been here before, Dr. Tortoriello shares advice from holistic wellbeing and mindset to injection tips.

Dr. Geoffrey Sher on Endometriosis on The Egg Whisperer Show

Providing the Highest Quality of Care

SFS consistently provides the utmost personal, compassionate and state-of-the-art care.

Our physicians consult one-on-one with each family and take pride in the relationships built with our patients, we put you first.


Our clinical care team of fertility specialists will be available to you all day, every day.


No matter how difficult a case, we are driven to help you succeed in your fertility goals.


We make it easy for you to afford our IVF and fertility treatment services.

Ask Our Doctors

Dear Patients,
I created this forum to welcome any questions you have on the topic of infertility, IVF, conception, testing, evaluation, or any related topics. I do my best to answer all questions in less than 24 hours. I know your question is important and, in many cases, I will answer within just a few hours. Thank you for taking the time to trust me with your concern.

– Geoffrey Sher, MD

Name: Sindy V

November 7, 2022
Hola doct mi pregunta es ase 8años me operaron. Tube 3niños me deje con mi pareja La doct que me operó me dijo que me habían cortado las trompas y que solo con in vitro podía aserlo cuánto tiempo dura el proceso y cuánto es el costo


Please re-post this question in English!


Geoff Sher

Name: Randi T

November 7, 2022
I have have had 2 pregnancies, 1 resulted in miscarriage and the other resulted in mono-di girls. I am a permutation fragile x carrier and they have the gene as well. Myself and my husband would like to go through IVF to achieve another pregnancy as I had a BTL with my twins. Would it… Read More »


The answer to both questions is yes!

Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals who carry the gene, FMR1 on an X-chromosome. This condition is inherited as a dominant X-linked disorder. With a dominant disorder, the condition results when there is only one copy of the altered gene in each cell.

Fragile syndrome occurs twice as frequently in males (1:1,200) as compared to females (1:2,500) A striking characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. The Fragile X gene, FMR1, can be passed on in a family by individuals who have no apparent signs of this genetic condition. In some families, a number of members appear to be affected, whereas in other families a newly diagnosed individual may be the first family member to exhibit symptoms.

By and large, Fragile X syndrome results from a mutation in the FMR1 gene where a segment, known (CGG triplet repeat), is expanded. Under normal circumstances, the CGG triplet is repeated from 5 to approximately 55 times. In contrast, those who have Fragile X syndrome will have more than 200 repeats. CGG segments prevent the FMR from propagating the formation of a specific protein needed to protect against the development of Fragile X syndrome. Thus over-expression of CGG triplet (>200 times) on an X chromosome represents a degree of loss of this “protective protein” as to lead to the development of fragile X syndrome. Since boys have only one X chromosome, Fragile X syndrome tends to manifest much more severely in males than in females, (who have two X chromosomes).

In a normal population, the number of repeated FMR1 genes varies from 5 to about 55. Those with 55 to 200 repeats of the CGG segment are said to have an FMR1 premutation (carriers”). In women, this is liable to increase to >200 repeats in the developing eggs. Accordingly, such women are at increased risk of having a child with fragile X syndrome. Conversely, when passed by men to the next generation, CGG repeats either remain the same in size or shorten. This is why men with a permutation do not transmit the disease. However they do transmit the permutation which if carried to a subsequent female offspring can result in them transmitting Fragile X syndrome in subsequent generations.

Both males and females with fragile X pre-mutation are by and large intellectually and physically normal in outward appearance. Some may manifest with mild but often socially harmful intellectual or behavioral symptoms,. They are however usually not infertile.

Some men with a premutation are at risk of developing a manifestation of fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) a condition characterized by loss of balance, tremors and memory loss. It occurs in some older male carriers of the gene. Heart bone and skin problems are also often present. Age distribution is a s follows: Seventeen percent (17%) of males aged 50-59 years, in 38 percent of males aged 60-69 years, in 47 percent of males aged 70-79 years, and in 75 percent or males aged 80 years or older. Some female premutation carriers may have diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), premature ovarian failure and FXTAS.

It is important to bear in mind that women who have approximately 55 to 200 repeats. There is no clear cut-off between the upper limit of normal and the lower limit of the premutation range. Accordingly, cases with 45-55 repeat copies fall into the so called “gray zone.” In some cases, premutations expand from generation to generation such that over time they ultimately express as full Fragile X syndrome. The larger the premutation in cases that fall in the “gray zone”, the greater is the risk of subsequent expansion to a full mutation in the offspring.

Boys with full FMR1 mutation (Fragile X syndrome) will almost routinely have moderately severe mental retardation. They will tend to have a characteristic facial appearance with a long face, enlarged cranium, protruding ears and an elongated face with a protuberant chin and forehead. Affected boys after puberty tend also to experience enlargement of the scrotum and laxicity of joints. There will also usually be characteristic behavioral problems such as lack of impulse control, temper tantrums, delay in speech and language development and perseverative speech. Hand biting, hand flapping and attention deficit /hyperactivity are other common manifestations. Fragile X syndrome is also the most common known cause of autism or “autistic-like” behaviors.

Girls with Fragile X on the other hand, tend to only have mild mental retardation. Women who have fewer repeats of the FMR-1 gene usually do not have mental retardation but often will have prematurely diminishing of ovarian reserve (DOR) with early menopause and infertility. Both men and women may develop FXTAS.

While most males with full blown clinical fragile X syndrome are mentally retarded and exhibit some or all the physical and behavioral characteristics, only about one third of females are mentally retarded. Another one third are partially mentally impaired, and the remaining third are unaffected.

Fragile X syndrome is diagnosed through DNA testing of cells using one of two methods:

  1. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) or
  2. Southern blot analysis

Both methods exhibit a high degree of interpersonal variability and thus when it comes to interpreting results, there are significant limitations. This is especially the case when diagnosing a “carrier state.” Interpretation is further complicated by the presence of other fragile sites in the same region of the X chromosome.

It is recommended that in the following circumstances, patients undergoing assisted reproduction be tested for Fragile-X:

  • All mentally challenged individuals, those who are autistic, and in cases of developmental delay
  • Women with unexplained premature reduction in ovarian reserve or premature ovarian failure (menopause)
  • Individuals who have physical or behavioral characteristics of fragile X syndrome
  • Those with a family history of fragile X syndrome
  • Those with a family history of mentally challenged male or female relatives where no definitive cause has been ascertained.
  • Offspring of known carrier mothers

Prenatal diagnosis can be made by 2nd trimester amniocentesis, which yields definitive results. In contrast, results obtained from 1st trimester chorionic villus sampling (CVS) should be interpreted with caution, because the status of the FMR1 gene often will not fully manifest in chorionic villi until the second trimester.

Feel free to contact my assistant, Patti Converse at 702-533-2691 and set up an online consultation with  me to discuss!


Geoff Sher


Name: Katrina S

November 7, 2022
Dear Dr Sher, My husband and I (both 35) have a severe male factor as well as lean PCOS. Despite this we had great fertilization and blastocysts rates in our IVF-ICSI with beautiful AA and BB embryos. Meanwhile we had 5 of our embryos transferred, of which 3 were able to implant but none grew… Read More »


When it comes to reproduction, humans are the poorest performers of all mammals. In fact we are so inefficient that up to 75% of fertilized eggs do not produce live births, and up to 30% of pregnancies end up being lost within 10 weeks of conception (in the first trimester). RPL is defined as two (2) or more failed pregnancies. Less than 5% of women will experience two (2) consecutive miscarriages, and only 1% experience three or more.

Pregnancy loss can be classified by the stage of pregnancy when the loss occurs:

  • Early pregnancy loss (first trimester)
  • Late pregnancy loss (after the first trimester)
  • Occult “hidden” and not clinically recognized, (chemical) pregnancy loss (occurs prior to ultrasound confirmation of pregnancy)
  • Early pregnancy losses usually occur sporadically (are not repetitive).


In more than 70% of cases the loss is due to embryo aneuploidy (where there are more or less than the normal quota of 46 chromosomes). Conversely, repeated losses (RPL), with isolated exceptions where the cause is structural (e.g., unbalanced translocations), are seldom attributable to numerical chromosomal abnormalities (aneuploidy). In fact, the vast majority of cases of RPL are attributable to non-chromosomal causes such as anatomical uterine abnormalities or Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID).

Since most sporadic early pregnancy losses are induced by chromosomal factors and thus are non-repetitive, having had a single miscarriage the likelihood of a second one occurring is no greater than average. However, once having had two losses the chance of a third one occurring is double (35-40%) and after having had three losses the chance of a fourth miscarriage increases to about 60%. The reason for this is that the more miscarriages a woman has, the greater is the likelihood of this being due to a non-chromosomal (repetitive) cause such as IID. It follows that if numerical chromosomal analysis (karyotyping) of embryonic/fetal products derived from a miscarriage tests karyotypically normal, then by a process of elimination, there would be a strong likelihood of a miscarriage repeating in subsequent pregnancies and one would not have to wait for the disaster to recur before taking action. This is precisely why we strongly advocate that all miscarriage specimens be karyotyped.

There is however one caveat to be taken into consideration. That is that the laboratory performing the karyotyping might unwittingly be testing the mother’s cells rather than that of the conceptus. That is why it is not possible to confidently exclude aneuploidy in cases where karyotyping of products suggests a “chromosomally normal” (euploid) female.

Late pregnancy losses (occurring after completion of the 1st trimester/12th week) occur far less frequently (1%) than early pregnancy losses. They are most commonly due to anatomical abnormalities of the uterus and/or cervix. Weakness of the neck of the cervix rendering it able to act as an effective valve that retains the pregnancy (i.e., cervical incompetence) is in fact one of the commonest causes of late pregnancy loss. So also are developmental (congenital) abnormalities of the uterus (e.g., a uterine septum) and uterine fibroid tumors. In some cases intrauterine growth retardation, premature separation of the placenta (placental abruption), premature rupture of the membranes and premature labor can also causes of late pregnancy loss.

Much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in RPL. There are two broad categories:

  1. Problems involving the uterine environment in which a normal embryo is prohibited from properly implanting and developing. Possible causes include:
  • Inadequate thickening of the uterine lining
  • Irregularity in the contour of the uterine cavity (polyps, fibroid tumors in the uterine wall, intra-uterine scarring and adenomyosis)
  • Hormonal imbalances (progesterone deficiency or luteal phase defects). This most commonly results in occult RPL.
  • Deficient blood flow to the uterine lining (thin uterine lining).
  • Immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID). A major cause of RPL. Plays a role in 75% of cases where chromosomally normal preimplantation embryos fail to implan
  • Interference of blood supply to the developing conceptus can occur due to a hereditary clotting disorder known as Thrombophili


  1. Genetic and/or numerical chromosomal abnormalities(aneuploidy) of the embryo are far away the commonest overall causes of miscarriages. But this only applies to sporadic pregnancy losses (which comprises the majority of all miscarriages. However, recurrent, (consecutive) pregnancy losses are much more likely due to implantation dysfunction than to embryo-related issues, where implantation dysfunction (usually anatomical or immunologic) factors usually underly the problem.
  2. Genetic or Structural chromosomal abnormalities (which only occur in about 1% of cases) can also cause RPL. This is referred to as an unbalanced translocation and they result from part of one chromosome detaching and then fusing with another chromosome. Additionally, genetic defects (unrelated to chromosomal abnormalities) can also affect embryo quality and pregnancy outcome. Damaged sperm DNA can sometimes be diagnosed using the SCSA (see before) which primarily measures the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI).



Autoimmune IID: Here an immunologic reaction is produced by the individual to his/her body’s own cellular components. The most common antibodies that form in such situations are APA and antithyroid antibodies

Alloimmune IID, i.e., where there is an immunologic reaction to antigens derived from another member of the same species (i.e. the woman’s immune system reacts to the paternal antigens in the sperm (see above) .

*It is important to recognize that alloimmune (rather than autoimmune) IID is more commonly associated with RPL.

Autoimmune IID is often genetically transmitted. Thus, it should not be surprising to learn that it is more likely to exist in women who have a family (or personal) history of primary autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus (LE), scleroderma or autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease), autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease), rheumatoid arthritis, etc. Reactionary (secondary) autoimmunity can occur in conjunction with any medical condition associated with widespread tissue damage. One such gynecologic condition is endometriosis. Since autoimmune IID is usually associated with activated NK and T-cells from the outset, it usually results in such very early destruction of the embryo’s root system that the patient does not even recognize that she is pregnant. Accordingly, the condition usually presents as “unexplained infertility” or “unexplained IVF failure” rather than as a miscarriage.

Alloimmune IID, on the other hand, usually starts off presenting as unexplained miscarriages (often manifesting as RPL). Over time as NK/T cell activation builds and eventually becomes permanently established the patient often goes from RPL to “infertility” due to failed implantation. RPL is more commonly the consequence of alloimmune rather than autoimmune implantation dysfunction.

However, regardless, of whether miscarriage is due to autoimmune or alloimmune implantation dysfunction the final blow to the pregnancy is the result of activated NK cells and CTL in the uterine lining that damage the developing embryo’s “root system” (trophoblast) so that it can no longer sustain the growing conceptus. This having been said, it is important to note that autoimmune IID is readily amenable to reversal through timely, appropriately administered, selective immunotherapy, and alloimmune IID is not. It is much more difficult to treat successfully, even with the use of immunotherapy. In fact, in some cases the only solution will be to revert to selective immunotherapy plus using donor sperm (provided there is no “match” between the donor’s DQ alpha/HLA profile and that of the female recipient) or alternatively to resort to gestational surrogacy.


In the past, women who miscarried were not evaluated thoroughly until they had lost several pregnancies in a row. This was because sporadic miscarriages are most commonly the result of embryo numerical chromosomal irregularities (aneuploidy) and thus not treatable. However, a consecutive series of miscarriages points to a repetitive cause that is non-chromosomal and is potentially remediable. Since RPL is most commonly due to a uterine pathology or immunologic causes that are potentially treatable, it follows that early chromosomal evaluation of products of conception could point to a potentially treatable situation. Thus, we strongly recommend that such testing be done in most cases of miscarriage. Doing so will avoid a great deal of unnecessary heartache for many patients.

Establishing the correct diagnosis is the first step toward determining effective treatment for couples with RPL. It results from a problem within the pregnancy itself or within the uterine environment where the pregnancy implants and grows. Diagnostic tests useful in identifying individuals at greater risk for a problem within the pregnancy itself include:

  • Karyotyping (chromosome analysis) both prospective parents
  • Assessment of the karyotype of products of conception derived from previous miscarriage specimens
  • Ultrasound examination of the uterine cavity after sterile water is injected or sonohysterogram, fluid ultrasound, etc.
  • Hysterosalpingogram (dye X-ray test)
  • Hysteroscopic evaluation of the uterine cavity
  • Full hormonal evaluation (estrogen, progesterone, adrenal steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, FSH/LH, )
  • Immunologic testing to include:
    • Antiphospholipid antibody (APA) panel
    • Antinuclear antibody (ANA) panel
    • Antithyroid antibody panel (i.e., antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies)
    • Reproductive immunophenotype
    • Natural killer cell activity (NKa) assay (i.e., K562 target cell test)
    • Alloimmune (DQ alpha/HLA) testing of both the male and female partners



Treatment for Anatomic Abnormalities of the Uterus: This involves restoration through removal of local lesions such as fibroids, scar tissue, and endometrial polyps or timely insertion of a cervical cerclage (a stitch placed around the neck of the weakened cervix) or the excision of a uterine septum when indicated.

Treatment of Thin Uterine Lining: A thin uterine lining has been shown to correlate with compromised pregnancy outcome. Often this will be associated with reduced blood flow to the endometrium.  Such decreased blood flow to the uterus can be improved through treatment with sildenafil and possibly aspirin.

Sildenafil (Viagra) Therapy (see above). Viagra has been used successfully to increase uterine blood flow. To date, we have seen significant improvement of the thickness of the uterine lining in about 70% of women treated. Successful pregnancy resulted in almost half of those women who responded to the Viagra. It should be borne in mind that most of these women had previously experienced repeated IVF failures.

Use of Aspirin: This is an anti-prostaglandin that improves blood flow to the endometrium. It is administered at a dosage of 81 mg orally, daily from the beginning of the cycle until ovulation.

Treating Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction with Selective Immunotherapy: Modalities such as IL/IVIg, heparinoids (Lovenox/Clexane), and corticosteroids can be used in select cases depending on autoimmune or alloimmune dysfunction.

The Use of IVF in the Treatment of RPL. In the following circumstances, IVF is the preferred option:

  • When in addition to a history of RPL, another standard indication for IVF (e.g., tubal factor, endometriosis, and male factor infertility) is superimposed.
  • In cases where selective immunotherapy is needed to treat an immunologic implantation dysfunction.

The reason for IVF being a preferred approach in such cases is that in order to be effective, the immunotherapy needs to be initiated well before spontaneous or induced ovulation. Given the fact that in the absence of IVF the anticipated birthrate per cycle of COS with or without IUI is at best about 15%, it follows that short of IVF, to have even a reasonable chance of a live birth, most women with immunologic causes of RPL would need to undergo immunotherapy repeatedly, over consecutive cycles. Conversely, with IVF, the chance of a successful outcome in a single cycle of treatment is several times greater and, because of the attenuated and concentrated time period required for treatment, IVF is far safer and thus represents a more practicable alternative

Since embryo aneuploidy is a common cause of miscarriage, the use of PGS/PGT-A can provide a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic advantage in cases of RPL. PGD requires IVF to provide access to embryos for testing.

There are a few cases of intractable alloimmune dysfunction due to “complete DQ alpha matching where Gestational Surrogacy or use of Donor  Sperm could represent the only viable recourse, other than abandoning treatment altogether and/or resorting to adoption. Other non-immunologic factors such as an intractably thin uterine lining or severe uterine pathology might also warrant that last resort consideration be given to gestational surrogacy.

The good news is that if a couple with RPL is open to all of the diagnostic and treatment options referred to above, a live birthrate of 70%–80% is ultimately achievable.

I strongly recommend that you visit Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select.  Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

  • The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
  • Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
  • IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS)
  • The Fundamental Requirements For Achieving Optimal IVF Success
  • Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol.(A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
  • Ovarian Stimulation in Women Who have Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR): Introducing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion protocol
  • Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
  • Human Growth Hormone Administration in IVF: Does it Enhances Egg/Embryo Quality and Outcome?
  • The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
  • Blastocyst Embryo Transfers Should be the Standard of Care in IVF
  • IVF: How Many Attempts should be considered before Stopping?
  • “Unexplained” Infertility: Often a matter of the Diagnosis Being Overlooked!
  • IVF Failure and Implantation Dysfunction:
  • The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 1-Background
  • Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
  • Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID):PART 3-Treatment
  • Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
  • Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management:(Case Report
  • Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
  • Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition; How it Works; Administration; Side-effects; Reactions and Precautions
  • Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
  • Endometrial Thickness, Uterine Pathology and Immunologic Factors
  • Vaginally Administered Viagra is Often a Highly Effective Treatment to Help Thicken a Thin Uterine Lining
  • Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas:
  • A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
  • How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
  • The Role of Nutritional Supplements in Preparing for IVF






Founded in April 2019, Sher Fertility Solutions (SFS) offers online (Skype/FaceTime) consultations to patients from > 40 different countries. All consultations are followed by a detailed written report presenting my personal recommendations for treatment of what often constitute complex Reproductive Issues.


If you wish to schedule an online consultation with me, please contact my assistant (Patti Converse) by phone (800-780-7437/702-533-2691), email ( or,  enroll online on then home-page of my website ( 




Geoff Sher




From Our Patients

Hi- I happily recommend Dr. Sher and his team. He came recommended to me by my sister after I had a negative experience with another clinic close by me. I didn’t think I wanted to travel to attempt to freeze embryos/eggs but it ended up being a better choice to go with a better Dr and team.

Michelle L

Sacramento, CA

Just couldn’t let a day go by without expressing my gratitude and sincere thanks to the amazing Dr. Drew and his team for their dedication to my personal care 5 years ago as a 45 year old Mom-to-be! Our Daughter is our world and we’re so blessed that Dr. Drew and his team cared for us on our journey. We highly recommend Dr. Drew and his team!

Suzanne D

New York

I cannot recommend Dr. Tortoriello and his team at Sher more highly. Dr. T is an excellent doctor, very kind, compassionate, patient, always listens to what you have to say including answering many questions during each visit, is very responsive to e-mails, and did not let us give up hope after being unable to conceive after about 5 years and a few IVF attempts.