Ask Our Doctors – Archive

Our Medical Directors are outstanding physicians that you will find to be very personable and compassionate, who take care to ensure that you have the most cutting-edge fertility treatments at your disposal. This is your outlet to ask your questions to the doctors.


  1. Dear Dr. Sher,
    Do you recommend Sildenafil 4x 25mg/day during the follicular phase or only when the embryo transfer is scheduled?
    Do you recommend Sildenafil although there are no previous evidences of lack of thickening of the endometrial walls?

    Thank you

    • Yes…only in the follicular phase but not in the absence of an endometrial thickness issue!

      Geoff Sher

  2. Hello Dr. Sher,

    I need your advice. I have had two failed embryo transfers. I had my embryos PGT tested and they were normal and very high-quality embryos. I am 37 years old with no underlining health conditions. But maternal history of endometriosis. I have not been diagnosed with this. The second transfer my doctor place me on Lupron for three months. It was ineffective. I have in asking for natural killer cells labs because I watch your videos. I am waiting for the results.

    My question is, what if I have elevated NK cells?

    My current doctor does not have any solution as to why my second transfer did not work and does not know what she should do for the next protocol.

    Dr. Sher, from the research I have done on you, you have so much more knowledge on specialty fertility in cases where women cannot have a successful pregnancy. I would appreciate if you can give me some guidance and advice thank you for your time.

    • antibodies (APA) that can compromise development of the embryo’s root system (trophoblast). In addition and far more serious, is the fact that in about one third of cases endometriosis, regardless of its severity is associated with NKa and cytotoxic uterine lymphocytes (CTL) which can seriously jeopardize implantation. This immunologic implantation dysfunction (IID) is diagnosed by testing the woman’s blood for APA, for NKa (using the K-562 target cell test or by endometrial biopsy for cytokine activity) and, for CTL (by a blood immunophenotype). Activated NK cells attack the invading trophoblast cells (developing “root system” of the embryo/early conceptus) as soon as it tries to gain attachment to the uterine wall. In most cases, this results in rejection of the embryo even before the pregnancy is diagnosed and sometimes, in a chemical pregnancy or an early miscarriage. As such, many women with endometriosis, rather than being infertile, in the strict sense of the word, often actually experience repeated undetected “mini-miscarriages”.
      Women who harbor APA’s often experience improved IVF birth rates when heparinoids (Clexane/Lovenox) are administered from the onset of ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins until the 10th week of pregnancy. NKa is treated with a combination of Intralipid (IL) and steroid therapy: Intralipid (IL) is a solution of small lipid droplets suspended in water. When administered intravenously, IL provides essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA), an omega-6 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid.IL is made up of 20% soybean oil/fatty acids (comprising linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, linolenic acid and stearic acid) , 1.2% egg yolk phospholipids (1.2%), glycerin (2.25%) and water (76.5%).IL exerts a modulating effect on certain immune cellular mechanisms largely by down-regulating NKa.
      The therapeutic effect of IL/steroid therapy is likely due to an ability to suppress pro-inflammatory cellular (Type-1) cytokines such as interferon gamma and TNF-alpha. IL/steroids down-regulates NKa within 2-3 weeks of treatment the vast majority of women experiencing immunologic implantation dysfunction. In this regard IL is just as effective as Intravenous Gamma globulin (IVIg) but at a fraction of the cost and with a far lower incidence of side-effects. Its effect lasts for 4-9 weeks when administered in early pregnancy.
      The toxic pelvic environment caused by endometriosis, profoundly reduces natural fertilization potential. As a result normally ovulating infertile women with endometriosis and patent Fallopian tubes are much less likely to conceive naturally, or by using fertility agents alone (with or without intrauterine (IUI) insemination. The only effective way to bypass this adverse pelvic environment is through IVF. I am not suggesting here that all women who have endometriosis require IVF! Rather, I am saying that in cases where the condition is further compromised by an IID associated with NKa and/or for older women(over 35y) who have diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) where time is of the essence, it is my opinion that IVF is the treatment of choice.

      I strongly recommend that you visit . Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.
      •The IVF Journey: The importance of “Planning the Trip” Before Taking the Ride”
      •Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
      •IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS)
      •The Fundamental Requirements for Achieving Optimal IVF Success
      •Use of GnRH Antagonists (Ganirelix/Cetrotide/Orgalutron) in IVF-Ovarian Stimulation Protocols.
      •Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF:
      •The Role of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 1-Background
      •Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 2- Making a Diagnosis
      •Immunologic Dysfunction (IID) & Infertility (IID): PART 3-Treatment
      •Thyroid autoantibodies and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
      •Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction: Importance of Meticulous Evaluation and Strategic Management 🙁 Case Report)
      •Intralipid and IVIG therapy: Understanding the Basis for its use in the Treatment of Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID)
      •Intralipid (IL) Administration in IVF: It’s Composition how it Works Administration Side-effects Reactions and Precautions
      •Natural Killer Cell Activation (NKa) and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction in IVF: The Controversy!
      •Treating Out-of-State and Out-of-Country Patients at Sher-IVF in Las Vegas
      •Should IVF Treatment Cycles be provided uninterrupted or be Conducted in 7-12 Pre-scheduled “Batches” per Year
      •A personalized, stepwise approach to IVF
      •How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF?
      •Endometriosis and Immunologic Implantation Dysfunction (IID) and IVF
      •Endometriosis and Infertility: Why IVF Rather than IUI or Surgery Should be the Treatment of Choice.
      •Endometriosis and Infertility: The Influence of Age and Severity on Treatment Options
      •Early -Endometriosis-related Infertility: Ovulation Induction (with or without Intrauterine Insemination-IUI) and Reproductive Surgery Versus IVF
      •Treating Ovarian Endometriomas with Sclerotherapy.
      •Effect of Advanced Endometriosis with Endometriotic cysts (Endometriomas) on IVF Outcome & Treatment Options.
      •Deciding Between Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).
      •Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): Who Needs it & who Does Not: Pro’s &
      •Induction of Ovulation with Clomiphene Citrate: Mode of Action, Indications, Benefits, Limitations and Contraindications for its use
      •Clomiphene Induction of Ovulation: Its Use and Misuse!

      Founded in April 2019, Sher Fertility Solutions (SFS) offers online (Skype/FaceTime) consultations to patients from > 40 different countries. All consultations are followed by a detailed written report presenting my personal recommendations for treatment of what often constitute complex Reproductive Issues.

      If you wish to schedule an online consultation with me, please contact my assistant (Patti Converse) by phone (800-780-7437/702-533-2691), email ( or, enroll online on then home-page of my website (


      Geoff Sher

  3. Dear Dr. Sher,

    I would like to ask you about DUO stim protocol for women with DOR. Is it OK to have double stim within the same menstruation cycle?
    I have DOR, endometriosis stage 1, MTHFR, 35 yrs old and 12 chemical pregnancies.
    I want to continue with your protocol A/ACP with HGH but just came across this one DUO stim in the clinic where I am thinking of doing IVF NGS.
    Thank you very much

    • Respectfully,

      I am not a protagonist of Duo-stimulations. In my opinion it can compromise follicle development as well a jeopardize egg/embryo “competency”.

      Geoff Sher

  4. Dear Doctor,

    I saw your video on internet and I noticed that you master very well my case.
    I have very low ovarian reserve Amh=0.4
    So I live in France and I want to came and have an ivf protocol with you.

    Thank you very much

    • Thank you!

      If you wish to consult with me online, please contact my assistant, Patti Converse at 702-533-2691.

      When it comes to reproductive performance, humans are the least efficient of all mammals. Even in young women under 35y, at best only 1 out of 2 eggs are chromosomally numerically normal (euploid). The remained have an irregular number of chromosomes (aneuploid) and are thus “incompetent”. The incidence of egg aneuploidy increases with age such by age 39 years, 3 in 4 are competent, and by the mid-forties, less 8 to 9 out of 10 are aneuploid. The fertilization of an aneuploid egg will inevitably lead to embryo aneuploid and an aneuploid embryo cannot propagate a normal pregnancy

      Within hours of the spontaneous pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, and also following administration of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) “trigger” shot (given to induce ovulation after ovarian stimulation with fertility drugs), the egg embarks on a rapid maturational process that involves halving of its 46 chromosomes to 23. During this process, (known as meiosis) 23 chromosomes are retained within the nucleus of the egg while the remaining (now redundant) 23are expelled, enveloped by a thin membrane. This small structure comes to lie immediately below the “shell” of the egg (the zona pellucida) and is known as the 1st polar body or PB-1. The spermatozoon, in the process of its maturation also undergoes meiosis at which time it too reduces its chromosomes by half. Thus in the process of fertilization the sperm divides into two separate functional gametes, each containing 23 chromosomes such that with subsequent fertilization, the 23 chromosomes in the egg, fuse with the 23 chromosomes of the mature sperm resulting in the development of an embryo that has 46 chromosomes (the normal human genome) comprising a combination of the genetic material from both partners.
      For the embryo to have exactly 46 chromosomes (the euploid number), both the mature egg and mature spermatozoon must contain exactly 23 chromosomes. Only euploid embryos are “competent” (capable of developing into healthy babies). Those with an irregular number of chromosomes (aneuploid embryos) are “incompetent” and are incapable of developing into healthy babies. While embryo “incompetence” can result from either egg or sperm aneuploidy, it usually stems from egg aneuploidy. However, in cases of moderate or severe male factor infertility, the sperm’s contribution to aneuploidy of the embryo increases significantly.
      While embryo ploidy (numerical chromosomal integrity) is not the only determinant of its “competency, it is by far the most important and in fact is rate-limiting factor in human reproduction. It is causal in most cases of “failed implantation” which in turn is responsible for most cases of failed IVF. It causes early miscarriages and is responsible for many chromosomal birth defects such as X-monosomy and Down’s syndrome. . In most cases, embryos that develop too slowly as well as those that grow too fast (i.e. ones that by day 3 post-fertilization comprise fewer than 6 cells or more than 9 cells) and/or embryos that contain a large amount of cell debris or “fragments” are usually aneuploid and are thus “incompetent”. Additionally, embryos that fail to survive in culture to the blastocyst stage are also almost always aneuploid/”incompetent”. At a certain point in the later stage of a woman’s reproductive career, the number of remaining eggs in her ovaries falls below a certain threshold, upon which she is unable to respond optimally to fertility drugs. Often times this is signaled by a rising day 3 blood follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level. Such women with diminishing ovarian reserve produce fewer eggs in response to ovarian stimulation. While diminished ovarian reserve is most commonly encountered in women over 40 years of age it can and indeed sometimes does occur in much younger women. A few important (but often overlooked concepts should be considered in this regard: 1. Age: It is advancing chronologic age and NOT declining ovarian reserve (as evidenced by abnormal blood AMH or FSH that results in an increased incidence of egg/embryo “incompetence” due to aneuploidy 2. DOR: The ovaries and developing eggs of women with diminished ovarian reserve (regardless of age) are highly susceptible to the adverse effect of excessive Luteinizing Hormone (LH)-induced overproduction of male hormones (mainly testosterone). A little testosterone produced by the ovary promotes normal follicle growth and orderly egg development but too much testosterone has the opposite effect. That is why (especially in women with diminished ovarian reserve who often have high LH and increased ovarian testosterone production , the use of ovarian stimulation protocols that fail to down-regulate LH production prior to initiating stimulation with gonadotropins, often prejudices egg/embryo quality and IVF outcome. Simply stated, while age is certainly the most important factor in determining the incidence of egg/embryo aneuploidy, women with diminished ovarian reserve (regardless of their age), unless they receive customized/individualized protocols of ovarian stimulation are less likely to propagate euploid (competent) eggs/embryos.

      Selection of the ideal protocol for controlled ovarian stimulation: While NOTHING can be done to lower the incidence of age-related aneuploidy, it is indeed possible to avoid a further increase in egg/embryo aneuploidy by individualizing the protocols of ovarian stimulation used.

      My Preferred Protocols .

      a) The conventional long pituitary down regulation protocol: BCP are commenced early in the cycle and continued for at least 10 days. Starting 3 days before the BCP is to be discontinued, it is overlapped with an agonist such as Lupron 10U daily for three (3) days and continued until menstruation begins (which should ensue within 5-7 days of stopping the BCP). At that point an US examination is done along with a baseline measurement of blood estradiol to exclude a functional ovarian cyst. Simultaneously, the Lupron dosage is reduced to 5U daily and an FSH-dominant gonadotropin such as Follistim, Puregon or Gonal-f daily is commenced for 2 days. On the 3rd day the gonadotropin dosage is reduced and a small amount of daily menotropin (Menopur 75U daily) is added. Daily ultrasound and blood estradiol measurements are done starting on the 7th or 8th day of gonadotropin administration and continued until daily ultrasound follicle assessments indicate that most follicles have fully developed. At this point egg maturation is “triggered” using an intramuscular injection of 10,000U hCG. And an egg retrieval is scheduled for 36h later.

      b) The agonist/antagonist conversion protocol (A/ACP): This is essentially the same as the conventional long down regulation protocol (as above), except that with the onset of post-BCP menstruation, the agonist is supplanted by daily administration of a GnRH antagonist (e.g. Ganirelix, Cetrotide or Orgalutron) at a dosage of 125mcg daily until the day of the hCG trigger
      When it comes to women who have DOR I favor the use of the A/ACP, adding supplementary human growth hormone (HGH). In some cases where the DOR is regarded as severe, I also augment the process with estrogen priming, preferring twice weekly intramuscular administration of estradiol valerate (Delestrogen), starting with the commencement of antagonist injection and continuing for 1 week before commencing gonadotropins and continued until the hCG “trigger. I further recommend that such women be offered access to preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for4 embryo selection and in some cases, for embryo banking (stockpiling). This is followed in a later hormone replacement cycle with the selective transfer of up to two (2) PGS-normal, euploid blastocysts. In this way we are able to capitalize on whatever residual ovarian reserve and egg quality might still exist and thereby “make hay while the sun still shines” , significantly enhancing the opportunity to achieve a viable pregnancy
      The following Ovarian Stimulation Protocols which in my Opinion best Avoided:
      a) Microdose agonist (e.g. Lupron) “flare” protocols
      b) High doses of LH/hCG-containing fertility drugs (E.G. Menopur).
      c) Protocols that incorporate supplementation with male hormones (e.g. testosterone)
      d) Supplementation with DHEA
      e) Clomiphene citrate or Letrozole which cause an elevation in LH and thus increase ovarian male hormone (testosterone and androstenedione output.
      f) “Triggering” egg maturation using too low a dosage of hCG (e.g. 5,000U rather than 10,000U) or Ovidrel e.g. 250mcg of Ovidrel rather than 500mcg)
      g) “Triggering” women who have large numbers of follicles using an agonist such as Lupron, Superfact or Buserelin.
      Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS):
      The introduction of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for the first time permits identification of all the chromosomes in the egg and embryo such that we can now far better identify “competent” (euploid) embryos for selective transfer to the uterus. This vastly improves the efficiency and success of the IVF process. This additional tool has better equipped us to manage cases with DOR. In my opinion, next generation gene sequencing (NGS), currently represents the most reliable method for performing PGS

      I strongly recommend that you visit Then go to my Blog and access the “search bar”. Type in the titles of any/all of the articles listed below, one by one. “Click” and you will immediately be taken to those you select. Please also take the time to post any questions or comments with the full expectation that I will (as always) respond promptly.

      •IVF: Factors Affecting Egg/Embryo “competency” during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation(COS) Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) for IVF: Selecting the ideal protocol
      •Egg Banking
      •The Fundamental Requirements for Achieving Optimal IVF Success
      •Ovarian Stimulation for IVF using GnRH Antagonists: Comparing the Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol. (A/ACP) With the “Conventional” Antagonist Approach
      •Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Measurement to Assess Ovarian Reserve and Design the Optimal Protocol for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) in IVF.
      •The “Biological Clock” and how it should Influence the Selection and Design of Ovarian Stimulation Protocols for IVF.
      •A Rational Basis for selecting Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) protocols in women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
      •Diagnosing and Treating Infertility due to Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR)
      •The BCP: Does Launching a Cycle of Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS). Coming off the BCP Compromise Response?
      •Blastocyst Embryo Transfers Should be the Standard of Care in IVF
      •Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET): A Rational Approach to Hormonal Preparation and How new Methodology is Impacting IVF.
      • Embryo Banking/Stockpiling: Slows the “Biological Clock” and offers a Selective Alternative to IVF-Egg Donation.
      •Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS) in IVF: It Should be Used Selectively and NOT be Routine.
      •Preimplantation Genetic Sampling (PGS) Using: Next Generation Gene Sequencing (NGS): Method of Choice.
      •Embryo Mosaicism”: Are Some Chromosomally Abnormal Embryos Capable of Resulting in Normal Babies and Being Wrongly Discarded?
      •How Many Embryos should be transferred: A Critical Decision in IVF.
      •Premature Luteinization (“the premature LH surge): Why it happens and how it can be prevented.